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Saturday, November 27, 2021

What Can We Expect From the Berlin Conference on Libya?

Diplomatic sources in Berlin revealed that the final statement of the Berlin II Conference on Libya will call for the immediate withdrawal of foreign mercenaries from Libya. In its 51 points, consisting of an Initial Draft, the statement will also call for providing strong support to the Libyan authorities in order to hold the elections on 24 December, according to the Italian news agency, Nova.

The sources told Nova that the draft final statement consists of six sections (introduction, security political process, economic and financial reforms, compliance with international humanitarian law and human rights, and follow-up), which is still under debate, and may undergo changes.

The first point confirmed, that the second Berlin Conference on Libya brought together senior representatives of the governments of Algeria, China, Congo (which chairs the African Union Ad Hoc Committee on Libya), Egypt, France, Germany, Italy, Libya, Morocco, the Netherlands, Russia, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In addition to representatives of the United Nations, the African Union, the European Union and the Arab League.

The fourth point revealed that Libya is granted full membership, compared to the previous conference.

The fifth point will emphasize the recognition of the progress made since the first conference on 19 January 2020 (cessation of hostilities, the continuation of the ceasefire, the lifting of the oil embargo, the formation of an interim government and its granting of confidence by the Libyan Parliament).

Point 13 calls on all parties to do more to ensure the holding of presidential and parliamentary elections as scheduled, on 24 December 2021. It will also call for allowing the mutual, coordinated, balanced, and sequential withdrawal of foreign forces, beginning with foreign mercenaries, from Libya. It demands the application of UN sanctions through national measures, against those who violate the arms embargo or the ceasefire.

In point 16, the draft calls to support Libya in its efforts to protect its southern borders, and limit the crossing of armed groups and weapons through the borders.

The final statement also underscores the importance of creating a unified Libyan security and defence force, under a unified civilian authority (Point 18).

Point 19 calls for the acceleration of the dismantling of the armed groups and militias, and the integration of qualified individuals into state institutions.

Point 20 stresses the need to combat terrorism in Libya, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law.

It also calls on all parties to disassociate and end support for groups and individuals designated as terrorists by the United Nations.

The statement also calls on all actors to stop financing military capabilities or recruiting mercenaries (point 22), with reference to the obligation to strengthen mechanisms for monitoring the arms embargo by the United Nations, national authorities, and the relevant international parties.

On the political front, the draft final statement calls on the Interim Presidential Council and the Interim Government of National Unity (GNU) to take further steps to unify the country (Point 26). It also urged all actors to restore and respect the unity of the executive, legislative, judicial, and other national institutions.

In particular, the document called on the Libyan authorities, led by the Parliament, to make the necessary preparations for holding free, fair, and inclusive national elections in December, and to “define the constitutional basis for elections and enacting electoral legislation” (Point 28).

The final statement will also call on the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum (LPDF) to “take measures, if necessary, that would facilitate the elections within the framework of the requirements of the political roadmap” (Point 29).

In point 31, the Conference will encourage UN member states and international and regional organizations to

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  1. […] + 21.06.: Berlin-II-Konferenz. Bereits einen Tag vor Beginn der Konferenz wurden die 51 Punkte, die im Abschlussdokument stehen sollen, bekannt: So wird der sofortige Abzug der ausländischen Söldner aus Libyen gefordert und die libyschen Behörden sollen bei der Vorbereitung der Dezemberwahlen unterstützt werden. Insgesamt soll das Abschlussdokument aus sechs Teilen bestehen: Einführung, Sicherheitspolitik, Reformen im Wirtschafts- und Finanzsektor, Einhaltung des Völkerrechts und der Menschenrechte, nachfolgende Maßnahmen.Teilnehmen werden hochrangige Vertreter der Regierungen von Ägypten, Algerien, China, Kongo (das den Vorsitz im Ad-hoc-Ausschuss der AU zu Libyen hat), Frankreich, Deutschland, Italien, Marokko, der Niederlanden, Russland, der Schweiz, Tunesien, der Türkei, den Vereinigten Arabischen Emiraten, Großbritannien und den USA, sowie Vertreter der UN, der AU, der EU und der Arabischen Liga und libysche Politiker. In Punkt 16 ruft der Entwurf dazu auf, Libyen in seinen Bemühungen zu unterstützen, seine südlichen Grenzen zu schützen und den Grenzübertritt von bewaffneten Gruppen und Waffen zu begrenzen. Die Abschlusserklärung unterstreicht auch die Bedeutung der Schaffung einer einheitlichen libyschen Sicherheits- und Verteidigungstruppe, die einer einheitlichen zivilen Autorität untersteht (Punkt 18). Punkt 20 unterstreicht die Notwendigkeit, den Terrorismus in Libyen in Übereinstimmung mit der Charta der Vereinten Nationen und dem Völkerrecht zu bekämpfen. Außerdem werden alle Parteien aufgefordert, sich von Gruppen und Einzelpersonen, die von den Vereinten Nationen als Terroristen bezeichnet werden, zu distanzieren und deren Unterstützung zu beenden.https://libyareview.com/14319/what-can-we-expect-from-the-berlin-conference-on-libya/ […]

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